NASA’s Arctic ecosystem science flights begin
Scientists from the Arctic-boreal or above vulnerability experience propose scientific instrument sets on nine of this summer’s airplanes, as well as field work in the forests and permafrost of the tundra. During its 10 years, the field campaign always accumulate above data to better understand how environmental changes in the North affect the local environment and how these changes can ultimately affect people and places beyond the Arctic.
“We are beginning to address some of the major problems in the climate system, such as how changes in Arctic ecosystems affect carbon exchange between land and water surface and the atmosphere,” said Peter Griffith, project director Above the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland.
The field campaign began officially up in 2016, with hundreds of researchers from universities, government agencies and the United States and Canadian federal agencies holding fieldwork on forest structure, permafrost thawing Carbon between the atmosphere and land, wildlife habitat and more.
This summer, the campaign expands to include the measurement in the region of aircraft using modern sensors that can become the basis for the next generation of space sensors to study terrestrial ecosystems. Between late May and October, there will be at least one flat on the ground at all times. Data from these flights connect the detailed data that scientists can gather at a specific site on the ground with views outside the area, but less detailed satellites, said Griffith.
“The air campaign provides the scientific connection between field observations and observations of space,” he said. “This allows us to extend the intensive measures in a specific study site, a vast landscape really intimidating.”
The instrument of the Under-Covered Microwave and Underwater Observatory (AirMOSS) on the NASA Johnson Space Center’s G-III plane and the synthetic aperture radar unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVSAR) on C-20A NASA Armstrong Air Research Center. The two radar instruments will study the soil – the measurement of soil moisture, the soil is the depth of the soil frozen and thawed.
Sensor earth, vegetation and ice (LVIS) in dynamic aircraft B200T aviation. LVIS is an instrument that measures the vegetation structure and topography in the soil and, with other data, will allow scientists to study how cold temperatures change the make-up and extension of forests, and how permafrost thaw changes the heights of the surface.
The visual airborne spectrometer / infrared (AVIRIS-NG) on B200 Dynamic Aviation aircraft. AVIRIS is an imaging spectrometer that collects information on 224 wavelengths, allowing scientists to collect data on plant health, and atmospheric characteristics including plumes of methane.
The instrument airborne radar surface water and ocean topography (AirSWOT) on NASA’s B-200 CRFA aircraft. AirSWOT, a reference instrument for the planned SWOT satellite mission scheduled to be launched in 2021, will measure the extent of surface waters, including arctic regions where lakes sometimes cover half the landscape.
The result of atmospheric carbon instruments (ATM-C) in the plane Mooney Aviation Scientific. ATM-C will measure carbon gases – carbon dioxide, methane and carbon monoxide – in the air around the aircraft, informing ongoing studies on the exchange of carbon between atmosphere and soil.
The Chlorophyll Fluorescence Spectrometer (CFIS) in the Twin Otter DHC6 International. The CFIS is a new instrument that uses a feature of plant physiology – chlorophyll in leaves when fluorescence captures sunlight energy – to estimate the total growth rate of plants in an area.
The series of emissions of active CO2 detection instruments at nights, days and stations (ascends) on the AFRC NASA’s DC-8 aircraft. Multiple instruments will measure carbon dioxide in the atmospheric column, collecting data and testing new approaches that could be used in a future satellite mission.